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Female Infertility

THE DEFINITION OF INFERTILITY.


In the absence of contraception, after more than 12 months of sex, without a successful conception, known as infertility, the term “infertility” means “infertile”. Women over the age of 35 are significantly less likely to become pregnant, and if they are unable to conceive for more than six months, they may consider an early visit.

There are two types of infertility, one is “primary infertility”, which means that she has never been pregnant. The other is “secondary infertility”, which means that she was pregnant, but has been unable to conceive for some reason.



PHYSIOLOGY OF PREGNANCY


  1. Sperm is made from the testicles and then moved to the secondary testicle storage. Sperm maturation takes about 70 days, and if mature sperm is not released by ejaculation within a month, it gradually degenerates. When ejaculation occurs, the sperm advances within the vasculum and is discharged from the urethra. Sperm life can last up to 72 hours in a woman’s body.
  2. The egg is developed in the follicle (or follicle) of the ovary, and a mature egg is released from the follicle each month. At the same time, the endometrium will mature further to facilitate the embryo’s bed. Eggs through the fallopian tubes, if have the opportunity to combine with sperm, will successful fertilization embryo, around 5 days after ovulation, the embryo will by the bed of the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, began to pregnancy.


CAUSE INFERTILITY.


The proportion of male factors is not low, so men and women should be checked at the same time when infertility occurs.

Female factors:

  1. Abnormal ovulation function and hormone imbalance.
  2. Abnormal secretion of cervical mucus makes the sperm unable to enter the uterine cavity smoothly.
  3. Abnormal uterine cavity structure, endometrial adhesion or abnormal function.
  4. The fallopian tube causes adhesion or obstruction due to inflammation or infection (inflammation, not necessarily infection).
  5. Intraperitoneal factors (such as endometriosis, or pelvic cavity, ovary, oviduct infection adhesion).

Male factors:

  1. Abnormal semen: decreased sperm count, abnormal shape, or decreased motility.
  2. Testicular sperm obstacles: with congenital anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities, hormonal abnormalities, infectious diseases, varicocele, chronic disease, trauma, environmental toxins, testicular cancer, drugs affect the cause.
  3. Abnormal sperm transport system: including congenital absence of vasculature or obstruction of the acquired vasculature.
  4. Sexual dysfunction: impotence, premature ejaculation or inability to ejaculate, hypospadias, etc.


FEMALE INFERTILITY TESTS: BLOOD TESTS.

In order to explore the possible causes of infertility, the physician will arrange a blood test at the appropriate time. Common inspection items include.

  1. Screening and tracking of indicators of endometriosis CA125,
  2. Check the hormones related to ovulation function, such as FSH, LH, estradiol (E2), testosterone, etc.
  3. Progesterone (P4), as well as prolactin (prolactin) and prolactin (TSH), were identified for ovulation and luteal function.

For example, doctors sometimes check FSH and E2 values (called basic hormone values) at the beginning of menstruation (around the third day of menstruation) to determine whether the ovarian function is normal. In addition, when doctors suspect that there is a particular cause of illness, TSH, cortisol, insulin, and 17OHP are also tested, and these items are selected by the physician according to the patient’s individual circumstances. And because most of these checks are hormones, some numerical also will be affected by the menstrual cycle point varies, so the inspection time should strictly follow the doctor’s advice, may check the number again and again, need some patience. A small amount of blood is required for blood tests, which will not affect your health.

PHYSIOLOGY OF PREGNANCY


  1. Sperm is made from the testicles and then moved to the secondary testicle storage. Sperm maturation takes about 70 days, and if mature sperm is not released by ejaculation within a month, it gradually degenerates. When ejaculation occurs, the sperm advances within the vasculum and is discharged from the urethra. Sperm life can last up to 72 hours in a woman’s body.
  2. The egg is developed in the follicle (or follicle) of the ovary, and a mature egg is released from the follicle each month. At the same time, the endometrium will mature further to facilitate the embryo’s bed. Eggs through the fallopian tubes, if have the opportunity to combine with sperm, will successful fertilization embryo, around 5 days after ovulation, the embryo will by the bed of the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, began to pregnancy.


FEMALE INFERTILITY EXAMINATION: LAPAROSCOPY.


1. The indications
Infertility is caused by a number of lesions in the uterus and pelvic cavity, including endometriosis, pelvic adhesion, fallopian tube obstruction, uterine fibroids, and uterine malformations. And in addition to ultrasound scanning and uterine tubal photography, such as the aforementioned hysteroscope can examine the interior of the uterine cavity, and laparoscopic is thorough internal, can examine the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity with the surface of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Therefore laparoscopic indications include other inspection (such as ultrasound scans or uterine tubal photography) cannot determine the diagnosis, suspected in the pelvic cavity lesions such as endometriosis or pelvic adhesion, and unexplained infertility. The same laparoscopy can sometimes be performed at the same time when the equipment and conditions are appropriate, and can be both diagnostic and therapeutic.

2. Examination procedures and complications.
Laparoscopy is usually chosen after menstruation is over. Under intubation anesthesia, the patients with head down, in the high position, in great enough carbon dioxide, after surgery in patients with abdominal incision as needed one or several small incision, with laparoscopic operation instruments into the abdominal cavity, to examine them one by one. Usually, the inspection can be done in a short time, but if the abdominal adhesion is severe or the lesion is treated appropriately, the operation time will be prolonged. The patient will be discharged from the hospital on the same day or the next day after the operation. Laparoscopy is an invasive surgical procedure, but due to the surgical instruments were better in recent years, the operation technology of physicians more progress, so the laparoscopy is a safe procedure, but occasional complications and cannot avoid completely, including: bleeding, abdominal organs (such as the intestines, great vessels, etc.) injury, postoperative adhesion, the procedure to open operation, and the risk of anesthesia and so on


PHYSIOLOGY OF PREGNANCY


  1. Sperm is made from the testicles and then moved to the secondary testicle storage. Sperm maturation takes about 70 days, and if mature sperm is not released by ejaculation within a month, it gradually degenerates. When ejaculation occurs, the sperm advances within the vasculum and is discharged from the urethra. Sperm life can last up to 72 hours in a woman’s body.
  2. The egg is developed in the follicle (or follicle) of the ovary, and a mature egg is released from the follicle each month. At the same time, the endometrium will mature further to facilitate the embryo’s bed. Eggs through the fallopian tubes, if have the opportunity to combine with sperm, will successful fertilization embryo, around 5 days after ovulation, the embryo will by the bed of the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, began to pregnancy.


A HEALTHY DIET FOR WOMEN.


  1. Folic acid food, a lack of folic acid, will affect the development of fetal neural tube, causing spina bifida. Yeast, wheat germ, nuts, beef and sheep pig liver, oyster, asparagus, beans, cod, spinach, peanuts, cauliflower, kale.
  2. Vitamin B6 food, wheat germ, salmon, chicken, oats, flounder, eel, walnuts, soybeans, beef and sheep pork, dried fish, crab, tuna, brown rice.
  3. Vitamin B12 food, pig liver, pig heart, oyster, eel, pig kidney, salmon, tuna, cod.
  4. Vitamin E foods: sunflower oil, almonds, cream, peanut butter, soy oil.
  5. Iron food, sea moss, dried fish, pigs and sheep liver, seaweed, seaweed, seaweed, shellfish, sesame, soybean.
  6. Protein, protein is very important to reproductive function, endocrine, hormone, the milk in food, beans, egg, lean meat are rich in protein.